Water Quality degrades-Water is life for our ecosystem. Yet, the quality of water is one of the major issues of this century. It’s posing a threat to our lives, ecosystem, flora, and fauna residing on this earth. The availability of water is compromised due to pollution of freshwater resources. This pollution is caused due to the presence of infectious agents, toxic chemicals, and radiological hazards. Furthermore, they are deteriorating the natural climate balancing phenomena. This may lead to unknown long-term adverse impacts on the ecosystem and human lives. As mentioned by various scientists, Water quality is important because its uses cover virtually all corners of life. From personal human consumption to the environmental and industrial application and even aquatic matter. All these Water quality degrades degraders are increasing day by day and degrades the quality of water.
Water quality degrades
Declining water quality has become a global issue of concern as human population grows, industrial and agricultural activities also increases and all the changes occurring in the environment leads to change in climate that disturbs the hydrological balances. Both natural processes and human activities influence the quality of surface waters and groundwater. Some major water pollutants are municipal and rural wastes comprises of raw sewage, primary & secondary effluents, septic tank effluents etc. Land erosion is another cause leading to deposition of animal wastes, acidic rains. Industrial wastes lay a big hand in contributing to the degradation of water quality through chemical industries, petroleum refineries, motor vehicles, textile mills, fruits and vegetable processing units etc. In addition to it, electrical and nuclear power plants are also a source of water quality degrades.
Steps to preserve the quality of water
Prevention of pollution
Pollution prevention strategies need to reduce and eliminate water at the source. Prevention is widely regarded as the cheapest, easiest and most effective way to protect water quality. In industry, the solution includes reformulating products such that they cause less pollution and requirement of resources also decreases (including water) during their manufacture. Agriculture, reducing the use of toxic materials for pest control, nutrient application and overall water usages through precision farming can reduce pollution. In the human settlement, the most obvious solutions include increasing improved sanitation coverage, consideration of settlement design (such a type of materials used for construction), the location of stormwater, as well as reducing waste water production
Treatment of polluted water
In cases of pollutants from domestic, industrial or agricultural activities, wastewater needs treatment before discharging. The proper treatment alternatives depend on the situations. For example, water supply for large-scale use, we require modern water treatment plants with multiples operations of water processing. At the community level, the solution may include solar stills, and smaller scale filtration and disinfection plants. In homes, the solution may include boiling of water, pasteurization, using water filters, treatment of water by solar treatments and chlorination of water to disinfect it. While several of the option mentioned may also be appropriate for treatment of water for industrial use, agricultural source water can, in some cases be of much lower quality, especially where harmful contaminants that can accrue in soil and crops are absent.
Justified use of water and its resources
Waste water should dispose of into water bodies, only after following treatment to render it environmental safe. However, it can safely be used sometimes even untreated in circumstances where impacts on human health and environment are well understood and all possible action is taken to eliminate risks. If well regulated, safe use of waste water for example, in agriculture, can reduce the pressure exerted by human activities on existing fresh water resources.
Furthermore, waste water can be a source of nutrients and proper management . It is potentially valuable for certain agricultural uses, reducing the need for expensive chemical fertilizer. Additionally, agriculture may act as a form of biological treatment, moving nutrients from water that otherwise may pollute water courses. In rural areas, after treatment of human waste water, it can be a viable source of water for reuse. It involves the separation of urine and fecal matter. Some industries, such as food and processing industry utilized large volumes of water, and often also discharge considerable quantities of waste water. Such waste water can be reuse in other applications that do not require high quality, or apply appropriate technologies to process waste water for producers requiring water of high quality.
Restoration of water
Water restoration and maintenance of a healthy ecosystem. It is a prime strategy to save water and the revival of the ecosystem.
Water quality is a major issue to pay attention. We require frequent steps to preserve it and decrease this Water quality degrades.